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The tail in a dog usually has between 6 and 23 movable vertebrae. The tail is able to be moved in many directions and speeds from side to side to up and down and even to draw it between their legs.
The tail has a variety of uses. You can tell a lot about what animals are feeling by watching their tails. The tail is used for communication, signs of happiness, aggression and many other emotions. A high wag back and forth, usually is an expression of happiness. A tail tucked between their legs can show fear or submission.
The tail fans odours like the important odour that comes from the anal glans which are like an unique identity mark to that dog.
The tail also acts as a counterbalance for balance and allows them to turn quickly and some breeds use it as a rudder when swimming or pulling sledges.
There are different problems with the tail and these include trauma, cuts, deformatity, Dermatitis, tumors to name a few.
Typical tail injuries are where they get caught, pulling skin off, bitten by another dog or crush injuries where the tail gets trodden on or run over.
The problem with some cuts to the tail can be that they wag them and the wound does not get a chance to heal. In some cases, vets will have to sew up wounds or even remove part of the tail.